By Claire Bacon
Most journals impose word limits on the articles they publish. Saying the same thing in fewer words not only increases an article’s chances of being accepted for publication, but also makes it easier to read. In this blog post, I explain how to reduce the word count in a research paper to keep the journal editor and the readers happy.
Replace wordy phrases with concise alternatives. For example:
- Explained instead of accounted for the fact that
- Now instead of at this point in time
- Many instead of a large number of
- Because instead of due to the fact that.
You can also avoid wordiness by choosing the right verbs. For example, the active voice uses fewer words than the passive voice:
The questionnaire was completed by the participants. (passive voice; 7 words)
Participants completed the questionnaire. (active voice, 4 words)
Nominalisation (changing verbs/adjectives into nouns) also introduces unnecessary passive verbs into your sentences. Use verbs that tighten your text:
A positive correlation between drug use and recovery time was observed. (11 words)
Drug use correlated positively with recovery time. (7 words)
This would lead to a reduction in patient mortality. (9 words)
This would reduce patient mortality. (5 words)
Using single verbs instead of phrasal verbs can also reduce the word count. For example:
We cut down on the amount of drug administered over time. (phrasal verb; 11 words)
We reduced the amount of drug administered over time. (single verb; 9 words)
You can cut this down even further by choosing more appropriate words:
We reduced the drug dosage.
The first person
Using first person pronouns (I, we, me, my, mine, us, our) is a great way to emphasise the author’s perspective and engage the reader. But the first person isn’t always suitable. Take a look at the following example:
We discovered that regular exercise reduced stress levels in healthy participants.
This is not an effective use of the first person. Keep the tone objective when describing results – and doing so will use fewer words:
Regular exercise reduced stress levels in healthy participants.
Delete any words that do not contribute important information. Prepositional phrases (groups of words without subjects or verbs) are often redundant and can be deleted without changing the meaning. For example:
- Large instead of large in size
- Round instead of round in shape
- Red instead of red in colour.
Also check whether the modifiers in the article are necessary. For example:
Careful hemodynamic monitoring is necessary to prevent tissue hypoxia during cardiac surgery. (Nobody will infer that careless hemodynamic monitoring is acceptable if you delete careful.)
Extensive inclusion criteria were used to define the target population. (The inclusion criteria will be presented, so no need to tell the reader they are extensive.)
Double negatives are also redundant – and unclear. For example:
Although the difference was small, it was statistically significant
is shorter and clearer than
Although the difference was small, it was not statistically insignificant.
Filler phrases such as it has been shown that, it is widely accepted that, and it should be noted that are often redundant, but can be used sparingly to guide a reader through the author’s evolving argument.
Concrete language is often more concise than abstract language. It also makes writing easier to understand. For example:
Patients with pancreatic cancer were examined by oncologists.
is specific and less wordy than
Patients with pancreatic cancer were examined by appropriately qualified medical personnel.
Use tables and figures
Save space by presenting large amounts of data in a table. Remove any redundant information (eg a column headed Sex is not necessary if all participants were female) and put units in the headings or footnotes rather than in each data field.
Don’t repeat yourself
Avoid repetition. Unnecessary adjectives are a common culprit – for example, past history, end result, advance planning, in actual fact, various different. Adverbs can be repetitive too – definitely proved, completely eliminate, may possibly, repeat again. Check whether adjectives and adverbs give new information. If not, delete them.
Do not repeat information from tables and figures in the text. A brief reference to what the figure or table is showing is sufficient. For example:
We collected data on age, sex, BMI, use of hormonal contraceptives, and Becks Depression Inventory score for all patients (Table 1)
is wordy and redundant. Try:
Patient characteristics are presented in Table 1.
Emphasise with care – intensifiers don’t always add meaning: exactly the same, absolutely essential, extremely significant, and very unique are all examples of redundant intensifiers and can be deleted.
Avoid continuous tenses
The continuous tenses indicate that something is ongoing. They are usually best avoided in research papers because they force unnecessary use of the verb to be. For example:
We measured creatinine levels in patient urine (simple past tense)
is concise and easier to read than
We were measuring creatinine levels in patient urine. (past continuous tense)
Abbreviations can make text concise because they avoid repetition of long words. Many scientific words are better known by their abbreviations, such as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). These abbreviations improve the flow and clarity of the writing and usually do not need to be defined:
Patient DNA was amplified by PCR
will be understood by most readers. However, non-standard abbreviations should be defined when first used:
The SN, SC, and IC are components of the MB
is impossible to understand. The reader needs to know what the abbreviations mean:
The substantia nigra (SN), superior colliculus (SC), and inferior colliculus (IC) are part of the midbrain (MB).
Don’t define abbreviations more than once in the main text. Abbreviations will only reduce the word count if they are used consistently after they are defined.
Be ruthless with your red pen
Authors are often reluctant to delete the words they have taken so much time to write. But cutting unnecessary information from a paper will draw attention to the important content. If time allows, put an article to one side for a while before deciding what to delete. This will make awkward phrases and irrelevant information easier to spot. Following the tips outlined in this article will help you decide what needs to go to get the word count under the journal’s limit.
Claire Bacon is a former research scientist and an Advanced Professional Member of the CIEP. She edits manuscripts for scientists and works as a copyeditor for The Canadian Journal of Anesthesia.
This article was published on Claire’s blog on 23 October 2019. Many thanks to Claire for granting permission to amend and republish it.
If you’re interested in learning more about helping authors to make their writing more clear and concise, then consider taking the CIEP’s Plain English for Editors course.
Photo credits: You choose your words – Brett Jordan on Unsplash; Books – Kimberly Farmer on Unsplash
Proofread and posted by Abi Saffrey, CIEP blog coordinator.
The views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of the CIEP.
Who’d have thought it? I’ve mentioned this blog to two other people (not SfEP) already today! Thanks very much, Claire – really useful.
I enjoyed this blog, as reducing wordiness in journal articles is most of what I do for clients. I also look out for the phrase ‘in order to’, which could easily just be ‘to’. My clients tend to be academics who are not native English speakers, and they rarely use an apostrophe s in their possessive construction, so again that is another quick way to trim excess words.
This was a perfect refresher! I have a meeting next week to discuss editing someone’s dissertation. Great tips. Thanks.
Love it. Briefly, FL
Thank you for this. Some very useful and practical reminders for someone who writes academic work and is always told off for overusing the passive voice; but also as a proofreader and editor, someone who has to help others reduce word count and improve texts.
Thank you, Claire. A great summary.
Crisp writing benefits international audiences and busy researchers.
A note of caution for one of the responses: much of this can’t be applied to proofreading theses/dissertations without more consideration, and it may not be appropriate to mention some of these approaches to students of any level.
For example, some universities’ policies expressly forbid editing to reduce word count, as this is more than proofreading. See the SfEP’s guide and course on working with students for some more of them.